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(added on 2017/06/09)

Eating a vaccine 口服疫苗

© 2017 SpatioEpi.com
Data source: PLoS Negl Trop Dis; WHO
Map created by CUHK SpatioEpi Group

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In June 2016. the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of USA approved a new oral live cholera vaccine for use in adults. The vaccine can prevent cholera caused by the bacteria of serogroup O1, which constitutes a majority of the outbreak cases (the other serogroup O139 is largely transmitted in Southeast Asia). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of USA issued an update on the recommendations of the use of cholera vaccine on 12 May 2017. Vaccination is recommended for adult travellers of age 18-64 planning a visit to an area of active cholera transmission. As of May, 2017, such practice has not been followed in Hong Kong and other countries.

The map shows the distribution of cholera endemic areas (data from an article published in PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases) in 2008-2012 and the number of cholera cases reported to World Health Organization (WHO) in 2015. Most of the endemic countries were located in central Africa. The country with highest number of cases reported was Afghanistan (58 064), followed by Haiti (36 045) and Democratic Republic of the Congo (19 182). It should be noted the number of reported cases does not necessarily reflect the actual severity of cholera outbreaks. Some of the affected countries may not have reported or under-reported for fear of negative impact on the economy, lack of a well-developed surveillance system, unclear diagnostic criteria or inadequate laboratory capacities. Access to clean water remains the best means of preventing cholera, while the public health application of vaccines would require further research to establish its role.

Data for the map were retrieved from WHO and PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases.

2016年6月,美國食物及藥物管理局批准使用新推出口服霍亂活疫苗。該疫苗能夠預防引致大部分霍亂爆發個案的O1血清型 (另一血清型為O139,大部份於東南亞傳播)。 由於新疫苗面世, 美國疾病控制與預防中心在2017年5月12日更新了霍亂疫苗應用指引,建議計劃前往霍亂活躍地區的18-64歲成年旅客,出發前服用該疫苗。現時(2017年5月)香港和其他國家暫時未有跟隨該建議。

地圖顯示2008-2012年霍亂在本土流行的國家(數據源自醫學期刊 PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 之文獻 )以及2015年通報世界衛生組織的霍亂個案宗數 。大部分受影響的國家位於非洲中部。最高報告個案數目的國家分別為阿富汗 (58 064),海地 (36 045) 及剛果民主共和國 (19 182)。一些受影響國家的報告數目可能不完全準確,原因包括因憂慮疫情對經濟影響而未如實通報、缺乏完善檢測機制、確診定義不清晰或實驗室能力不足等等。現時清潔水源仍是預防霍亂的最重要方法,疫苗的公共衛生應用有待進一步研究。

地圖數據源自世界衛生組織及PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases