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(added on 2017/10/27)

Plague outbreak 鼠疫爆發

©2017 SpatioEpi.com
Data source: Hospital Authority, Hong Kong
Map created by CUHK SpatioEpi Group

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Since August 2017, there has been an ongoing outbreak of plague in Madagascar, Africa. Within 2.5 months (1 Aug - 15 Oct 2017), more than 800 cases were reported, including at least 60 deaths. Thirty-seven out of 114 districts of the country have reported cases (http://www.afro.who.int/health-topics/plague/plague-outbreak-situation-reports). Seychelles, Madagascar's nearby country, has also reported imported cases.

In 1990s, plague prevailed in Asia and Africa, as shown in the map. While plague was still widespread in Africa, the number of reported cases in Asia was small in the following decade (2000-2009). In 2010 and thereafter, the annual number of reported cases in Africa dropped significantly to below 1000. However, the outbreak in Madagascar this year is becoming a concern, as it pushes the epidemic curve up again.

Plague is transmitted through the bite of infected animal's (mainly rodent) fleas. It can be classified as bubonic plague, pneumonic plague and septicaemic plague. Pneumonic plague can spread through respiratory droplets and is highly contagious. Around two-third of reported cases in the current outbreak in Madagascar were pneumonic plague. At least 39 healthcare workers were infected.

Data for the map were extracted from WHO.

今年(2017)八月,馬達加斯加爆發的鼠疫持續至今尚未完結。兩個半月期間(8月1日至10月15日),已經有超過800呈報個案,包括最少60死亡個案,覆蓋114中的37個地區 (http://www.afro.who.int/health-topics/plague/plague-outbreak-situation-reports)。附近的塞舌爾共和國也受影響。

地圖顯示,鼠疫曾經在九十年代橫行於亞洲、非洲。其後十年(2000-2009)鼠疫仍然盛行於非洲,但亞洲只有少數個案。2010年及以後,雖然每年非洲的呈報個案已經大幅下降至1000個案以下,但今年馬達加斯加的爆發再次使疫情趨勢向上升。

鼠疫主要通過受感染動物(主要是齧齒動物)身上的帶菌跳蚤經叮咬而傳播,可分為腺鼠疫、肺鼠疫和敗血性鼠疫。其中肺鼠疫可透過吸入患者的飛沫於人與人之間傳播,傳染性極高。今年馬達加斯加的鼠疫爆發有三份二個案被診斷為肺鼠疫,最少39個醫護人員受感染。

地圖資料源自世界衛生組織