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Know your status 確保自知感染

(added on 2021/11/25)

© 2021 SpatioEpi.com
Data source: UNAIDS
Map created by CUHK SpatioEpi Group


1 December is World AIDS Day, the day that the world is reminded of our fight against HIV, the virus causing AIDS. In 2020, normal delivery of healthcare services has been disrupted because of COVID-19 pandemic and the corresponding social distancing and other regulations. Provision and utilization of HIV testing service have also been affected. Areas highlighted in darker colours on the map refer to places with low awareness of HIV in 2020. In a number of countries, less than 50% of people living with HIV knew their status.

HIV infection may be asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic in the initial phase. Some infected people may not be diagnosed until they develop serious complications. Late HIV diagnosis commonly refers to cases with CD4 count below 350/uL or with AIDS at the time of diagnosis. Compared to people with early diagnosis, those with late diagnosis would have relatively poorer treatment effect and higher mortality rate. From the public health perspective, late diagnosis may also imply posing an increased risk of onward community transmission during the prolonged undiagnosed period. Countries with over half of their HIV cases diagnosed late are labelled with yellow or red circles on the map.

If exposure to HIV is suspected, or if there have been high risk exposure, get tested as soon as possible for timely treatment initiation.

Data for the maps were extracted from UNAIDS.

12 月 1 日是世界愛滋病日,提醒全世界我們與愛滋病病毒 (HIV) 的鬥爭。在2020年,2019新冠病毒疫情及疫情期間的社交距離等防疫措施對日常醫療服務提供造成不少影響。其中,HIV檢測服務提供和使用率亦有可能因此而受影響。地圖上較?深色的地方標示出2020年估計已知感染者的百分比,可見仍有一些地方只有少於50%的感染者得悉自己的感染狀況,情況令人關注。

由於HIV感染初期通常只有輕微症狀或無症狀,以致有些感染者在出現嚴重併發症才被確診。 延誤確診一般指感染者在確診時的CD4細胞量低於350/uL或已患上愛滋病。因此,對比及時確診者,延誤確診者的治療效果會較差,而死亡率亦較高。從公共衛生角度,由於延誤確診者的未確診感染期較長,所以也會增加社區的傳播風險。地圖可見有黃色或紅色圓圈標示的地方,表示有超過一半感染者是延誤確診。



Related Article

HIV infection 人類免疫力缺乏病毒感染

What is HIV/ AIDS? 什麼是人類免疫力缺乏病毒感染/愛滋病?

  • The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that infects cells of the human immune system, destroying or impairing their function. In the early stages of infection, there is no symptom. As HIV infection progresses, the immune system becomes weaker, thereby increasing susceptibility to opportunistic infections.
  • The most advanced stage of HIV infection is acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In the absence of treatment, 50% of the infected individuals progress to AIDS. The use of antiretroviral drugs can reverse the immune deficiency.
  • 人類免疫力缺乏病毒(HIV)是一種感染人類免疫細胞,從而破壞人體免疫系統的反轉病毒。在感染初期,患者可以完全沒有任何病癥。但在感染後期,患者的免疫力會被削弱,容易被其它機會性感染影響。
  • 愛滋病(後天免疫力缺乏症候群) 是人類免疫力缺乏病毒感染的後期嚴重階段。在沒有接受治療的情況下,平均一半感染者在十年內發病,成為愛滋病患者。抗病毒藥物治療可以有效恢復患者免疫能力。

How does HIV spread? 如何傳播?

  • HIV is transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse (heterosexuals and homosexuals), transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, sharing of contaminated needles in injection drug users, and between a mother and her infant during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding.
  • HIV的傳播途徑包括不安全性接觸 (異性及同性) ,輸入受污染血液或血制品、靜脈吸毒者共用針筒、和母嬰傳播(懷孕、分娩、和哺乳期間)。

Vaccine? Prevention? 如何預防?

  • A safe and effective vaccine is still under development. The practice of safer sex with the use of condom is one most effective means of preventing HIV infection through sex. Avoidance of needle sharing is important in injection drug users, whereas antiretroviral treatment can be effective in preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission.
  • 預防疫苗至今仍在研究中。現時最有效的預防性傳播方法是採用安全性行為,包括使用安全套。吸毒者應避免共同使用針具,而抗病毒藥物則可以有效預防母嬰傳播。

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