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Getting tested for HIV 愛滋自已知

(updated on 2013/06/10)

©2009 SpatioEpi.com
Data source: Hong Kong Department of Health
Map created by CUHK SpatioEpi Group


Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, or "cocktail therapy") is effective for improving immunity and reducing life-threatening complications in HIV infected individuals. Knowledge of one's HIV status is needed before treatment can be offered according to standard guidelines. HIV test is available not just at hospitals but also a range of community level services. In Hong Kong the latter includes Social Hygiene Clinics where sexually transmitted infections (STI) are diagnosed and treated, methadone clinics for heroin users (many of whom inject heroin), TB and Chest Clinics (TB is a common complications in HIV patient)…, Maternal and Child Health Centres (for pregnant women, who, if HIV diagnosed, can be offered antiretroviral drugs to prevent infection in newborns), and the many outreach community services run by non-governmental organizations (NGO). The distribution of these sites is shown in this map. Or, one may dial the AIDS Hotline 27802211 for an HIV testing and counseling appointment.


Related Article

HIV infection 人類免疫力缺乏病毒感染

What is HIV/ AIDS? 什麼是人類免疫力缺乏病毒感染/愛滋病?

  • The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that infects cells of the human immune system, destroying or impairing their function. In the early stages of infection, there is no symptom. As HIV infection progresses, the immune system becomes weaker, thereby increasing susceptibility to opportunistic infections.
  • The most advanced stage of HIV infection is acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In the absence of treatment, 50% of the infected individuals progress to AIDS. The use of antiretroviral drugs can reverse the immune deficiency.
  • 人類免疫力缺乏病毒(HIV)是一種感染人類免疫細胞,從而破壞人體免疫系統的反轉病毒。在感染初期,患者可以完全沒有任何病癥。但在感染後期,患者的免疫力會被削弱,容易被其它機會性感染影響。
  • 愛滋病(後天免疫力缺乏症候群) 是人類免疫力缺乏病毒感染的後期嚴重階段。在沒有接受治療的情況下,平均一半感染者在十年內發病,成為愛滋病患者。抗病毒藥物治療可以有效恢復患者免疫能力。

How does HIV spread? 如何傳播?

  • HIV is transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse (heterosexuals and homosexuals), transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, sharing of contaminated needles in injection drug users, and between a mother and her infant during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding.
  • HIV的傳播途徑包括不安全性接觸 (異性及同性) ,輸入受污染血液或血制品、靜脈吸毒者共用針筒、和母嬰傳播(懷孕、分娩、和哺乳期間)。

Vaccine? Prevention? 如何預防?

  • A safe and effective vaccine is still under development. The practice of safer sex with the use of condom is one most effective means of preventing HIV infection through sex. Avoidance of needle sharing is important in injection drug users, whereas antiretroviral treatment can be effective in preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission.
  • 預防疫苗至今仍在研究中。現時最有效的預防性傳播方法是採用安全性行為,包括使用安全套。吸毒者應避免共同使用針具,而抗病毒藥物則可以有效預防母嬰傳播。

Methadone 美沙酮

  • Methadone can be used as analgesic, cough suppressant and anti-addictive maintenance in people who are on opioids. Back in the 1970s, in order to reduce drug dependence amongst heroin users, the Hong Kong Government established methadone maintenance programme and opened clinics to provide methadone to heroin users. Oral methadone has longer action (24 to 36 hours) as compared to heroin (6 to 8 hours). Its action is to occupy the brain receptor sites affected by heroin, thereby blocking the effects as well as relieving the craving and withdrawal symptoms. Methadone maintenance reduces unsafe needle sharing and potentially reduces blood borne infections. Methadone maintenance is a form of harm reduction measure, as it potentially reduces criminal offences associated with drug addiction and leads heroin users back to a normal life.
  • 美沙酮可以用作為鎮痛藥、抑制咳嗽及用以治療有吸食海洛英等習慣的吸毒者。早於上世紀70年代,為了減少吸食海洛英使用者的毒癮,香港政府建立美沙酮診所提供美沙酮作為代用療法。口服美沙酮的藥效可以維持24至36小時,比海洛英(6至8小時)為長。在體內美沙酮佔據被海洛英影響的腦受體,阻止毒品發揮功效,大大減低倚賴及毒癮癥狀。口服美沙酮能減少因共用針筒而引起血液感染的傳染病。美沙酮代用療法有效幫助吸毒者回復正常生活,以及減少毒品買賣而引發的種種罪案問題。

Social Hygiene Service 社會衛生科

Operating under the Department of Health, there are currently 6 social hygiene clinics in Hong Kong, some further divided into male and female clinics.

The social hygiene service is responsible for the prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections. Its dermatology clinics also manage skin diseases and Hansen's disease.

The social hygiene service provides free medical check-up, treatment and counselling on sexually transmitted infections for citizens on a walk-in basis, without the need for doctor's referral.

香港政府衛生署轄下社會衛生科設有六間診所,部分更劃分為成男性和女性診所 。

社會衛生科專責預防和控制經性接觸所傳染的疾病(性病),附屬的皮膚科診所治理皮膚病和麻瘋病 。

社會衛生科為市民提供免費性病檢查、治療及輔導服務, 病者可以自行到診,無需醫生轉介信。

Tuberculosis 結核病

What is Tuberculosis? 什麼是結核病?

  • Tuberculosis, or TB, is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs.
  • In healthy people, infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis often causes no symptom, since the person’s immune system acts to “wall off” the bacteria. The symptoms of active TB of the lungs are cough, sometimes with sputum or blood, chest pain, general weakness, weight loss, fever and night sweats. Tuberculosis is normally treated with a six to nine-month course of antibiotics.
  • 結核病是由一種名為結核桿菌的細菌所引起的傳染病,通常影響肺部。
  • 受結核桿菌感染的病人,部份因本身的免疫系統發揮作用而不會有任何病癥。而活躍肺結核病的病癥則包括咳嗽,痰涎中帶血、胸口痛、疲倦、體重下降、發燒、夜間冒汗等。結核病者一般需要接受為期六至九個月的抗生素療程治療。

How does it spread? 如何傳播?

  • TB is transmitted from person to person via droplets from the throat and lungs of people with the active respiratory infection.
  • 結核病是經患者呼吸系統產生的飛沫於空氣中人傳人感染的。

Vaccine? 疫苗?

  • BCG, or bacillus Calmette-Guérin, is a vaccine for tuberculosis disease. In Hong Kong, all the new born babies receive BCG vaccine as a part of the childhood immunisation programme. Vaccination does not guarantee protection.
  • 卡介苗是用以預防結核病的一種疫苗。每一個香港新生嬰兒需要接受一系列免疫接種,當中包括卡介苗注射。接種卡介苗並不保證不受結核桿菌感染。

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